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Aerobic exercise, also known as endurance exercise, is continuous exercise such as brisk walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming and playing sports. Aerobic exercise or continuous exercise is a physical exercise which uses certain muscle groups continuously at moderate intensity from start to finish such as brisk walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming and playing sports. There are 3 key factors of continuous exercise or aerobic exercise, as below-

1. Intensity : it should be moderate which means fatigue until unable to sing a song or gasping like situation.

2. Continuity : exercise should be done for a minimum of 30 minutes/day. It can be done in one slot or in short bouts of 5-10 minutes each. You need to reach the level of moderate-intensity to start counting it as one short bout and continue the moderate-intensity exercise for30 minutes.

3. Consistency : one should do exercise of moderate intensity for 30 min daily 5 days/wee or in shorter bouts which make a total of 150-minute minimum per week.

Strength training exercise or bodybuilding is a type of exercise which helps to increase muscle mass and strength of various muscle groups in the body. Each muscle group is exerted against resistance with variety of exercise sets. Each set is used for training one or multiple groups of muscles and repeated several times either with or without tools such as dumbbells and elastic band.

It is a different from aerobic exercise that uses most of the muscle groups of the body and are exerted simultaneously to increase fitness of cardiovascular system such as brisk walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming and playing sports.

There are 10 major muscles in the body which should be trained, as detailed below. You should perform all of them in strength training but you just need to focus on some particular muscle groups in one day. A good set is usually designed for exercising various muscle groups in one set.

                   

  1. Biceps (muscles of front arms)
  2. Triceps (muscles of back arms)
  3. Deltoids (muscles of shoulders) which are major muscles of shoulders
  4. Pectoralis (muscles of chest) which are major muscles of chest
  5. Latissimus dorsi (muscles of back)
  6. Rectus abdominus (muscles of abdomen) which are major muscles of abdomen
  7. Quadriceps (muscles of front thighs)
  8. Hamstrings (muscles of back thighs) which are major muscles of back thighs
  9. Gastrocnemius (muscles of calves) which are major muscles of calves
  10. Gluteus maximus (muscles of buttocks) which are major muscles of buttocks and normally atrophy in aged
  1. It reduces body fat - an increase in muscle mass plays key role to increase the rate of metabolism even at rest. It helps ultimately to burn more calories from glucose and fat storages in the body.
    1. Sets refer to form or mode of exercise which uses specific muscle group for its repetitive activity. Each set may be performed using your body weight or tools such as dumb-bells or elastic bands or machines. You can do such 8-15 sets of strength training exercise each time.
    2. Reps refer to the number of repeat actions or contractions of a particular muscle or muscle group in one set. As the aim of strength training is to train muscles more than they are accustomed to, each set has to be repeated number of times. Each set comprises 8-15 reps till exhaustion. If you perform 8-15 reps but you are not exhausted, it shows that the designed set of resisting weight may be too light to do strength training. However, resisting weight can’t be increased in some form of exercise such as slow dancing with a stick to exercise for back muscles. In such Increasing the number of reps is the only way to increase muscle strength. In this case, one set may be performed repeatedly up to 100 times.
  2. It prevents and reverses osteoporosis- Strength/resistance training helps to stimulate bones to increase its bone mass and strength to cope with resisting force.
  3. It helps prevents and reverse diabetes- Some studies have shown that strength training exercise helps prevent diabetes in prediabetic patients better than anti-diabetic drug use.
  4. Better body balance prevents or reduces chances of falling and injury which are serious problems in elderly people.
  5. It decreases joint pain - a comparative study found that patients with arthritis who did strength training exercise had a lower joints pain compared with those who did not. Strong muscles provide better support to the joints.
  6. Makes you stronger and helps live well – moderate strength training helps prevent muscle atrophy in elderly people. Even if you are aged, you can work hard, travel or do activities such as skiing and hiking to improve quality of life similar to younger people.
  7. Makes good personality and posture strength training can make elegant personality, with back straight, body straight and strong or active movements. Increases longevity- Preventive Medicine published the results of a study in 30,000 adults of age 65 and older, for 15 years. Participants were divided to 2 groups; one group of older adults who did strength training exercise at least twice a week (only 10% of total participants) and other group did not do the exercise. The results showed that older adults who performed strength training at least twice a week had 45% lower risk of all-cause mortality and 41% lower risk of cardiac death [362].

People who want to do strength training exercise should know basic index of this exercise type, as below:

  • Warm-up :

    Sudden start of exertion of body muscles may cause muscle injury. Pain may persist for several weeks or months and may sometimes leads to stoppage of exercise. Before starting strength training, you must prepare your body by warming up such as beginning with slow movement and then stretching each muscle group to allow muscles for adaptation and prevent muscle injuries.

  1. Overload :

    To increase muscles mass, muscles must work greater than they are accustomed to, by exerting as hardest as possible. Thus, you need to exert until your muscles are exhausted when performing 8-15 reps.

  2. Progression :

    The nature of muscles is such that when they are exerted with the same reps with same resisting weight, they get adapted without incremental muscle mass. To force an increase in muscle mass one should increase a resisting force every week or month such as increasing an amount of weight for lifting, increasing elastic band for pulling, increasing a number of sets or increasing a number of reps in each set.

  3. Rest and recovery :

    When you work out any muscle groups until they are fatigued and exhausted, that muscle group must be rested for at least one day to allow it to recover and grow. Therefore, you must have a plan for focusing a diverse muscle groups each day of exercise. For example, exchanging between the muscles of upper body and the muscles of lower body every other day.

  4. No momentum effect :

    While exercising against resisting force such as weight lifting and pulling an elastic band, if you hold an object which is producing a resisting force such as a pendulum or elastic band and move it quickly, then it creates force that keeps an object moving in the same direction. The force is called momentum. For example, if you pull elastic band quickly, you will use less exertion than slow pulling, because quick pulling causes more momentum. Good strength training must not rely on momentum instead of muscles. You can do it by using slow movement in all directions, i.e. up, down, stretching, and retracting. Another disadvantage of momentum is when you move quickly until the end of the movement, you must exert to stop the movement because inertia allows pendulum or elastic band to move further. This exertion to stop the movement sometimes causes muscle injury.

  5. Breathing :

    When you intend to exert hard, you often hold or force out breath unintentionally. If you do that, you will get unwanted effects as your muscles have to work without sufficient oxygen that results in acidosis causing muscle pain and stiffness. Moreover, a forcing out of one's breath stress in your body systems such as high blood pressure. Good strength training must be slow and gradual with breathing in and out rhythmically according to a set that you perform. You should breathe in and out one cycle in each rep by selecting to exhale in the rhythm at hard exertion. For example, when you lift dumbbells, you should exhale during lift up and inhale during lift down.

  6. Range of motion :

    Each muscle group is responsible for a specific organ movement. When you intend to perform a specific set for a muscle group, you should allow that muscle group to move to the end range of motion according to its nature for flexibility and balance of your body and prevention of diseases caused by the limited range of motion such as frozen shoulder.

  7. Posture :

    There are 2 problems of lifestyle behavior nowadays, i.e.
    (1) you often perform postures which are likely to be stooping down and crooked back leading to kyphosis in aged and
    (2) you have no chance to exercise at abdominal muscle leading to be paunchy belly easily and more.

    You have to always consider about sets of exercise when you plan to perform strength training to correct these two disadvantages, i.e.
    (1) always keep postures on body straight,
    (2) always tighten abdomen during both the rhythmic breathing in and breathing out without inflate or deflate abdomen to allow abdominal muscles to be exerted along with all sets of exercise, and always stand with feet slightly apart and knees slightly bent in all sets to allow quadriceps (muscles of front thighs), hamstrings (muscles of back thighs), and gastrocnemius (muscles of calves) to be exerted along with exercise. As the posture is very important for strength training, you should perform with mirror for always checking your posture.

1.   Squat

It is a set for strengthening muscles of abdomen, front and back thighs, buttocks, and calves. When you develop skills, you might use a dumbbell to increase exertion of your muscles.
Stand with the ready set i.e. extend chest, tighten abdomen, back straight, feet slightly apart, and slightly bent knees, then bend your knees as you lower your buttocks backwards as if you sit on a chair slowly with straight back and extend your arms so that your buttocks are backward most until you always see your toes. You lower your buttocks until your thighs are parallel to the ground and pause awhile. Then, slowly raise body back to the standing set. Normally, you should do 3 sets with 8-15 reps/set.

2.   Lunges

It is a set for strengthening muscles of abdomen, front and back thighs, hips, and calves. When you have skills, you might use the dumbbells to increase exertion of your muscles. From the ready standing set, place your left foot apart until your right heel is raised from the ground (pace about 1 meter long), bend your knees, extend chest, tighten abdomen, always keep your back straight. Bend your right knee nearly the ground and pause for a slow count of 1 to 3 seconds when you are in the position of the lowest knee. Then, slowly raise body back to a standing set. When you complete one set (8-15 reps/set), you can switch to your right foot.

3.   Dips

t is a set for strengthening muscles of back arms (Triceps).
Sit on edge of a sturdy chair or bed, hold edge of a sturdy chair or bed with your both hands, extend your legs towards farthest while your feet are flat on the ground, tighten abdomen and back straight. Bend and straighten the elbows to do a dip while your back must be close to edge of a sturdy chair or bed until your buttocks nearly the ground and pause awhile. Then, push your elbows back to raise your body.

4.   Push-up

It is a set for strengthening muscles of upper body i.e. chest (Pectoralis), front arms (Biceps), back arms (Triceps), and shoulders (Deltoids).
Lie on the floor face-down with straight body, place your both hands on the floor under your shoulders, raise your body with your hands until your hands are extended straight. Then, bend your elbows slowly to lower your body all the way down to return to the beginning set. In case, you cannot raise whole body with your hands, you can apply this set by raising only upper body and keeping their legs on the floor.

5.   Leg raise

It is a set for strengthening lower abdominal muscles.
Lie flat on your back on the floor while your hands are under hips, extend body straight, tighten abdomen, and extend legs straight without bending knees. Raise your both legs and pause for few seconds. Then, you lower your legs until your legs are near the floor and pause for few seconds. Then, raise legs again up and down to complete the set as you want.

6.   Leg raise across

It is a set for strengthening lower abdominal muscles.< /br> Lie flat on your back on the floor while your hands under hips, extend body straight, tighten abdomen, and extend legs straight without bending your knees. Raise your both legs at about 45-degree angle off the ground and switch across toward the other side, i.e. switch your right leg to the left side and switch your left leg to the right side. Then, repeat until you complete the set as you want.

7.   Hands raise to ankles

It is a set for strengthening upper abdominal muscles.Lie flat on your back on the floor, make your body straight, tighten abdomen, and extend legs straight without bending your knees. Raise your both legs about 45- to 60-degree angle off the ground, raise your both hands to toes which is a ready set. Then, raise your body with upper abdominal muscles so that your both hands can reach to ankles. Then, return to the ready set and repeat to complete sets as you want.

8.   Hands raise across to ankles

It is a set for strengthening upper and oblique abdominal muscles. Lie flat on your back on the floor, keep your body straight, tighten abdomen and extend legs straight without bending your knees. Raise your both the legs at about 45- to 60-degree angle to the ground, raise your both hands to toes which is a ready set. Then, raise your body with upper abdominal muscles so that your left hand can touch your right ankle. Then, return to the ready set and raise your body again so that your right hand can touch your left ankle. Do this repeatedly to complete sets as you want.

9.   Sit up

It is a set for strengthening upper abdominal muscles. Lie flat on your back on the floor, extend body straight, bend your both knees upward, grab your ears with both hands at each side, and raise your chest upward with upper abdominal muscles while your eyes look up at ceiling without just head raise. Then return to the beginning of the set and raise your chest repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

10.   Leg cycling

It is a set for strengthening upper, lower, and oblique abdominal muscles. Lie flat on your back on the floor, extend body straight, grab your ears with both hands at each side, cycling movements with switching each leg in the air. Bend your left knee during cycling with your right leg while you raise your upper body and raise your right elbow to touch your left knee. Then bend your right knee during cycling with your left leg while you raise your upper body and raise your left elbow to touch your right knee. Do this repeatedly by switching each leg until you complete sets as you want.

11.   Pelvic raise

It is a set for strengthening muscles of front thighs, back thighs, and calves.Lie flat on your back on the floor, extend your body straight, bend your both knees upward, place your arms at your sides, hold your toes on the floor, raise your pelvis up towards your abdomen so that your hips and lower back are off the floor and pause for few seconds. Then, return your back to the floor and make sure that your heels must not touch the floor. Raise your pelvis again and repeat until you complete sets as you want.

12.   Gluteal kick

It is a set for strengthening muscles of buttocks (Gluteus maximus). Lie on one side with semi-face-down on the floor. Start with the left side, bend your left knee and place your right palm on the floor for creating a semi-face-down set. Bend your right knee and touch your right elbow which is a ready set. Then, kick your right foot backward in slant up feature in the air. Return to the ready set by bending your right knee to touch your right elbow. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want. Then, switch to your right side on the floor.

13.   Oblique crunch

It is a set for strengthening oblique abdominal muscles.Lie on one side with semi-face-down on the floor, and start with the left side. Place your left palm on the floor which is perpendicular to the floor. Your both legs are closed together and bend your both knees toward your left fingers placing on the floor slightly while both knees straight. Grab your right ear with your right hand. Then, raise your upper body upward by pushing your left and exerting oblique abdominal muscles in oblique feature to bend your body like a shrimp to raise your both legs which are closed together in a manner that your right elbow touch right knee. Make sure that both knees are extended straight. Then, return to the beginning set and make sure that your both legs must not touch the floor. Raise your upper body upward again so that your right elbow touch right knee. Do this repeatedly until you reach complete sets as you want. Then, switch to your right side on the floor.

14.   Bow

It is a set for strengthening back muscles.
Lie on the floor face-down, extend legs straight, raise your both hands overhead and place on the floor which is a ready set. Bend your back and raise your both hands and legs off the floor most that seems like you are pulling a bow. Then, lower your hands and legs and make sure that they must not touch the floor. Bend your back and raise your hands and legs upward again. Do this repeatedly until you complet sets as you want.

15.   Plank

It is a set for strengthening whole body muscles.
Lie on the floor face-down, extend both legs straight, bend your both elbows and place forearms and palms on the floor, and hold your both feet on the floor. Raise whole body off the floor and tighten your whole body muscles like head, neck, body, hip, and legs straight like a plank. Remain in the position until you are exhausted. Repeat as you want and tolerate.

16.   Side plank

It is a set for strengthening oblique body muscles.
Lie on one side on the floor starting from the right side, extend both legs straight, bend your right elbow and place your right forearm and palm on the floor and catch your waist with your left hand. Raise whole body off the floor and tighten your oblique body muscles at the right side so that your head, neck, body, hip, and legs are straight like a side plank. Remain in the position until you are exhausted. Repeat few time as you tolerate.

1.   Hammer curl

It is a set for strengthening muscles of front arms (Biceps).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand at shoulder level while thumb toward your body. Extend your arms toward your thighs like hitting nails with hammers. Then, raise the dumbbells back to the ready set. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

2.   Biceps curl

It is a set for strengthening muscles of front arms (Biceps) in another direction.
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand at shoulder level while palms toward your body. Extend your arms toward your thighs. Then, raise the dumbbells back to the ready set. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

3.   Shoulder press

It is a set for strengthening muscles of shoulders (Deltoids).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand with raising the dumbbells up over your head while your arms are not fully extended until they are locked. Slowly lower the dumbbells until your upper arms are parallel to the floor. Then, return the dumbbells up overhead which is the ready set and slowly lower the dumbbells again. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

4.   Chest swing

It is a set for strengthening muscles of chest (Pectoralis).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand at your face level. Open your both elbows until your chest is extended fully. Then, close your both elbows back to the ready set. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

5.   Triceps curl

It is a set for strengthening muscles of back arms (Triceps).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand backwards at your occiput while both elbows toward the front at your ears level. Slowly raise the dumbbells up over your head. Then, bend your both elbows back to the ready set at your occiput. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

6.   Lateral raise

It is a set for strengthening muscles of shoulders (Deltoids).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, stoop down toward the front, raise buttocks up with back straight parallel to the floor, tighten abdomen, extend chest and the dumbbells are placed on the floor in front of you. Extend your both arms to pick up the dumbbells from the floor. Make sure that your back is straight and parallel to the floor. Then, open your both arms to raise the dumbbells until your both arms are parallel to the floor. Slowly lower the dumbbells down to the ready set. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

7.   Triceps kick-back

It is a set for strengthening muscles of back arms (Triceps).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, stoop down toward the front, raise buttocks up with back straight and your body slope about 45- degree angle with the floor, tighten abdomen, extend chest, bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand at waist level. Slowly extend your both arms backward. Make sure that the dumbbells are kicked backward farthest. Then, slowly bend your both elbows to the ready set. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

8.   Dumbbell row

It is a set for strengthening muscles of back, shoulders, and arms.
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor, feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, stoop down toward the front, raise buttocks up with back straight and your body slope about 45- degree angle with the floor, tighten abdomen, extend chest, bend both elbows and carry a dumbbell in each hand with your both extended arms straight toward the front. Push the dumbbells backward at upper waist level while your both elbows are bent toward the back. Then, return to the ready set. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

1.   Chest expansion

It is a set for strengthening muscles of chest (Pectoralis).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor with feet slightly apart, bend both knees slightly and keep body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows. Fold an elastic band by a half while both hands which hold the band are extended straight toward the front fully. Slowly pull the band out by opening your hands until your hands are opened fully. Then, release the band to return to the original position. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

2.   Vertical triceps

It is a set for strengthening muscles of back arms (Triceps).Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor with feet slightly apart, bend both knees slightly and keep body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows. Fold an elastic band by a half while both hands hold the band behind. Slowly pull the band out by opening your hands until your hands are opened overhead fully. Then, release the band return to the original position. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

3.   Horizontal triceps

It is a set for strengthening muscles of back arms (Triceps).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor with feet slightly apart, bend both knees slightly and keep body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows. Fold an elastic band by a half while both hands hold the band that seems like you are going to shoot a bow; your right hand extends toward the front that seems like you are holding the bow and your left hand seems like you are holding an arrow. Bend your left hand to pull the band backward that seems like you are ready to shoot. Then, release the band return to the original position. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.
 

4.   Biceps curl

It is a set for strengthening muscles of front arms (Biceps).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor with feet slightly apart, bend both knees slightly and keep body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows. Unfold an elastic band to an original while both feet step on the middle of the band and both hands which hold the band are raised over your head at your sides by facing-up your both palms out from your body. Bend your both elbows to pull the band up until your both hands are at shoulders level. Then, release the band to return to the original position. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

5.   Press down

It is a set for strengthening muscles of back (Latissimus dorsi).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor with feet slightly apart, bend both knees slightly and keep body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows. Fold an elastic band by a half while both hands which hold the band are raised over your head by turning your both palms out from your body and extending arms straight. Slowly pull the band out by opening your hands until you pull fully. Then, release the band to return to the original position. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

6.   Pull up

It is a set for strengthening muscles of upper back (Trapezius).
Start with the ready set i.e. stand on the floor with feet slightly apart, bend both knees slightly and keep body straight, tighten abdomen, extend chest and bend both elbows. Fold an elastic band by a half while both hands which hold the band are extended downward with turning your both palms toward your body. Slowly pull the band out by opening your hands so that you can pull farthest away from each hand side if possible. Then, release the band to return to the original. Do this repeatedly until you complete sets as you want.

7.   Arm fly

It is a set for strengthening muscles of chest (Pectoralis). Start with holding a band with a pole or a door knob and stand on the floor with the ready set, i.e. feet slightly apart, and bend both knees slightly, body straight, tighten abdomen, then grab the band behind with both hands by extending your arms farthest away from each hand side and turning your both palms toward your body. Stand far from the pole or the door knob so that band is stretched slightly. Slowly pull the band approaching to the middle. Then, release the band to return to the original position. Do this repeatedly until you reach complete sets as you want.

The goal of balance exercise is to reduce incidence of falls in elderly people. There are 7 risk factors leading to falls in elderly person i.e.

(1) eyesight,
(2) weakness of hip muscles and leg muscles,
(3) posture is not vertical,
(4) feet cannot be raised off the ground,
(5) late reaction to stimulations,
(6) taking medication increasing risk of falls, and
(7) blood pressure drop.

There are 5 elements of balance in individuals that includes

(1) brain or mindfulness,
(2) skeletal muscles,
(3) bones and joints,
(4) eyes, and
(5) balancing organs in the inner ears.

When individuals are older or elderly persons, they will limit their posture and movement to be a posture which is the most safe as they are confident i.e. the posture of getting ready for a tennis ball which is standing with knees bent, crooked back, both hands are placed at belt level with caution.This posture causes the brain losing the opportunity to practice a challenge and balance worse. Balance exercise is the exercise to challenge and force the brain to use the five elements simultaneously which are mindfulness, the inner ears, eyes, skeletal muscles, and bones and joints. There are 3 principles i.e.

(1) you have to try the postures and movements that challenge the brain more,
(2) you have to often practice every day for several hours, and
(3) you have to practice anywhere, anytime. The sets as I provide below are just examples, actually you can further adapt to suit yourself. In practice, the leather dance shoes are best but if you do not have them, you can use any shoes.

1.   One leg stand

Begin with standing with feet together, bend one knee and raise that leg, and stand on one foot. Do each side at a time.

2.   Eye tracking

Stand straight with straight head, extend your arm fully in front of your face with thumbs up. Move your thumb to the left until the end of arm's length and try look at your thumb with your eyes without turning your head and keeping the head straight-ahead. Then move your thumb to the right until the end of arm's length and looking at the thumb without turning head and keeping it straight-ahead. Repeat several times.

3.   Clock reach

Stand straight as if you stand on big clock, raise one leg and stand on the other leg, extend your both arms fully sideways to the left and the right at shoulders level, look straight-ahead. Then, slowly turn your body and arms while your head and neck are steady to bring your left arm to 12 o'clock and your right arm to 6 o'clock and then, then bring your right arm to 12 o'clock and your left arm to 6 o'clock. Turn your body to bring your arms to other numbers of the clock as you want with switching to the other leg.

4.   Staggered stance

Stand on a straight line which is a line from the front to back as you suppose or a timber or a plank. Make a left toe behind right heel and alternate it putting the other foot in front.

5.   Heal to toe

Stand on a straight line or a timber or a plank, extend your arms sideways, look straight-ahead. Step forward placing your left heel directly in front of your right toes and do the same with your right heel and step continuously until you walk to the end of the timber or plank. Then, walk back until the end of the timber or plank.

6.   Just walk

Stand on a timber with body straight, put a cup of coffee on your head, look straight-ahead. Walk on the timber with natural arm swing.

7.   Knee marching

March on a timber by raising one knee up high at hip level. Swing your arms high at shoulders level and walk until the end of the timber.

8.   Single limb with arm

Stand on a timber, make toes of one side leg behind the other heel. Start with your left foot first, extend body straight, look straight-ahead, raise your right hand along with right knee that seems soldiers are marching but they raise opposite hand. Walk forward like this with alternate putting the left and the right until the end of the timber.

9.   Grapevine

Stand straight on a timber, extend chest straight, extend your head, turn your side parallel to the timber line. Walk to the left by crossing your right leg behind your left leg. Walk continuously until the end of the timber, then walk back.

10.   Body circle

Stand on a timber or the floor, extend your both arms sideways. Slowly sway in a circle as if you are drunk. Try to pretend to fall and keep yourself to sustain preventing fall.

11.   Dynamic walking

Walk on a timber, head straight, look straight-ahead while slowly turning your head by looking from left shoulder to right shoulder. Then, look back from the right to the left while walking without losing pace. Move your head and neck as if you reading a book while walking.

12.   Stepping

Walk with raising knee high to sidestep over an object or a stump placed apart without losing pace.

13.   Balancing wand

Stand on a timber, hold a wand in palm of the hand, bend your knees, focus at the top of the wand and begin balancing it upright by stepping on same place. Then, walk on the timber towards, backwards, and cross your one leg behind the other leg like the set of grapevine without the wand fall from your palm.

After warm-up, stretching is readiness of muscles before starting training the muscles. Sets of muscle stretching of each muscle groups as provided below are just the examples but you can perform variety sets as you like or individual skills in practicality.

1.    Biceps (muscles of front arms) stretching 

Biceps stretching of left arm: Extend and face-up your left arm straight, grab your left four fingers with your right hand and pull them until you feel the stretch in your front arms muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, release the stretch and switch to your right arm.

2.   Triceps (muscles of back arms) stretching

Triceps stretching of left arm: Raise your left arm straight over your head, bend your elbow with forearm behind your head, raise your right hand over your head and grab left elbow, pull left elbow with your right hand through behind your head to the right side until you feel the stretch in your back arms muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, release the stretch and switch to your right arm.

3.   Deltoids (muscles of shoulders) stretching

Deltoids stretching of left shoulder: Extend your left arm straight through your face to the right side, bend your right hand and pull your left arm with your right forearm at elbow position backward until you feel the stretch in your left shoulder muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds, breathing throughout. Then, release the stretch and switch to your right shoulder.

4.   Pectoralis (muscles of chest) stretching

Pectoralis stretching Extend both arms behind your back and turn your palms out of the body, clasp your hands together, retract your shoulders most if possible until you feel the stretch in your chest muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, release the stretch.

5.   Latissimus dorsi (muscles of back) stretching

Latissimus dorsi stretching Raise your both hands straight over your head, take a deep breath in, breathe out along with stoop down and try to touch your toes until you feel the stretch in your back muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, face upward slowly and return your both hands back to straight over your head.

6.   Rectus abdominus (muscles of abdomen) stretching

Rectus abdominus stretching: Raise your both hands straight over your head, take a deep breathing in, breathe out along with face upward and bend your back and catch your back waist with both hands until you feel the stretch in your abdominal muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, return your head back to straight slowly.

7.   Quadriceps (muscles of front thighs) stretching

Quadriceps stretching of left thigh: Stand on your right foot, bend your left leg back and grab your left foot with your left hand until your thigh is perpendicular to the ground and you feel the stretch in your left thigh, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, release the stretch and switch to your right thigh.

8.   Hamstrings (muscles of back thighs) stretching

Hamstrings stretching of left thigh: Place your left foot by a half, raise your left toes while your left heel touches to the ground, bend your right knee while your left leg is extended, clasp your hands together and place on your left leg at upper knee position. Extend both hands straight, press left leg downward with your body weight until you feel the stretch in your left thigh muscles. Hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, release the stretch and switch to your right thigh.

9.   Gastrocnemius (muscles of calves) stretching

Gastrocnemius stretching of left calf: Place your right foot apart, extend left leg straight while your left foot is flat on the ground, bend your right knee and stoop toward the front until you feel the stretch in your left thigh muscles, hold the stretch for a slow count of 1 to 10 seconds. Then, release the stretch and switch to your right thigh.